The International Revolutionaries
By Ahmed Kamran
(Editor’s Note: Owing to an editorial error, this post is appearing out of sequence. It should follow the two posts on the Ghadar Party and precede the post on the Jihad Movement. The error is regretted.)
Tewar a’atey hain haqeeqat main bhi afsanon kay
Kuch haqeeqat bhi hua karti hay afsanon ki
While a steady migration of Indian peasants and working classes was taking place towards other British colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas (as discussed in the previous posts on Ghadar Party), a new and more comprehensive political and administrative order as crafted by Lord Macaulay was put in place by the colonial rulers in India.
With it came gradual reforms in education. Many schools and colleges were set up in most of the major cities. Here modern education was imparted to the Indian youth to produce a new breed of loyal and educated gentlemen, imbibed with western ideologies and colonial outlook. These developments, indeed, brought a significant social change, particularly in the Indian middle classes, engaged in commerce or in services sector like teaching, legal practice, and printing and publications, and, at times, with some supplementary income coming from small landholdings. But, on the flip side, the exposure to the western world and its ideas of democracy, nationalism, and liberalism produced a new generation of Indian youth who now had an intense desire to see India freed from slavery and colonial subjugation of the British masters. They wanted to see it emerge as an independent and democratic sovereign country in the world. Many Indian students were also now reaching London, Paris, and Berlin seeking higher education and better work opportunities.
Shyam Kirshan Verma, born in Mandvi, Gujrat in 1857, was one such student. Obtaining his early education at Bhuj and then in Bombay, Shyam Verma learnt Sanskirit and religious studies. Married into a wealthy business family of Bhatias, he emerged as a scholar of Sanskrit and Vedic philosophy and a reformer under the influence of nationalist Arya Samaj Society. He came to England in 1879. Graduating from Oxford, he became a non-resident member of the prestigious Royal Asiatic Society and attended the Berlin Congress of the Orientalists. Obtaining his law degree, he returned to India in 1885, and served as Diwan (Chief Minister) for Indian states of Ratlam, Udaipur, and Junagadh, and practiced in British Court at Ajmer in between his appointments with the Indian states. Becoming increasingly nationalist, during his last tenure as Diwan of the Junagadh state, Verma had a bitter dispute with the British political agent and resigned in disgust in 1897. Having invested his handsome income wisely in few cotton mills and becoming financially comfortable, Verma returned to London at the behest of Swami Dayanand Sharaswati of Arya Samaj. Inspired by the writings of noted English philosopher Herbert Spencer, and interacting with English socialist circles, Shaymaji was now an ardent Indian nationalist. Living in a large house at Highgate in London, he was in close company of Lala Lajpat Rai, Dada Bhai Nauroji, VVS Ayer, Madam Bhikam Cama (an affluent Parsi Indian woman living in London who came under strong influence of Indian nationalism), Lokmanya Tilak, and Gokhale. His house in London became a prominent centre of the newly fermenting modern Indian nationalism.
He founded an India Home Rule Society in London and brought out a monthly journal Indian Sociologist in 1904. Seeing many Indian students facing difficulties after arrival in London, and with the support from Lajpat Rai, Dadabhai Nauroji, S.R. Rana, and Madam Bhikaji Cama, Verma established his house at 65 Cromwell Avenue, Highgate in North London as ‘India House’ in 1905. It was to serve as a hostel, providing lodging and boarding assistance to Indian students coming to London and offering scholarships to the needy. Soon ‘India House’ in London became an important centre for the Indian nationalist students and political workers in Britain.
Notable among those who stayed in ‘India House’, or participated in its activities, were Virendranath Chatopadhya, Lala Har Dayal (who later worked with Ghadar Party in San Francisco), M.P.T. Acharya, and V.D. Savarkar.
Virendranath Chattopadhya who became a leading light of the group and known as Viren or Chatto, was born in Hyderabad, Deccan in a distinguished Bengali family. His father, Dr Aghorenath Chatopadhiya had been a principal and science professor at Nizam College of Hyderabad. His brother Harindernath, and sister, Sarojini Naidu, were both well known Bengali poets. His two other sisters Mrinalini and Suhasty later joined the Communist Party of India and earned distinctions on their own right. Another brother Marin Chatopadhiya also became an activist joining in the independence movement. Viren was fluent in Tamil, Telugu, Bengali, Hindi, Urdu, Persian, and English. Later he learnt French, German, Dutch, Russian, and Scandinavian languages with equal ease. Viren graduated from the University of Calcutta and joined Oxford in 1902 in London, preparing for the ICS exam. Here he had a change of heart and became a disciple of Shayam Verma at ‘India House’. He joined Middle Temple for his law degree.
Soon, Madam Bhikaji Cama moved to Paris in 1905 and together with S.N. Rana and M.B. Godrej founded the Paris Indian Society. A new paper Banday Mataram was also published from Paris. The ‘India House’ in London also spread its branches and associates in Tokyo (1907) and in New York (1908). Maulvi Barkatullah who was in Tokyo and had also participated with Shayam Verma in the formation of Home Rule Society helped establish an ‘India House’ in Tokyo. By now Barkatullah had built strong links with some prominent Japanese nationalist leaders and academicians, including Okawa Shumei, who became a noted Indologist and a scholar on Islam. After WW2, Okawa was tried as a war criminal advocating war against the western imperialists and was imprisoned. Later, because of his infirmity he was placed in a Tokyo hospital where he completed the first ever translation of the Holy Quran in Japanese. Barkatullah had also built links with some Irish revolutionary groups based in New York, USA, and sympathetic to the Indian cause. He had visited them to collaborate. In collaboration with this Irish group in New York, Tarka Nath Das of Ghadar Party from Seattle had also published many issues of his ‘Free Hindustan’ from New York in 1908.
Lala Har Dayal returned to India in 1908 and participated in Swadeshi movement in Lahore. He again left India in 1909 and reaching Paris served for a while as editor of Banday Matram. Fickle in character, he soon left Paris for Algeria, but still remaining uneasy he went to Martinique in the Caribbean, meditating and forming concepts of a new religion. Finally, he arrived in New York in 1911. From there he moved to San Francisco and joined the Ghadar Party. This also helped create a bridge between the ‘India House’ revolutionaries with the Ghadar Party on the west coast of USA.
By 1907, Shyam Verma’s activities with ‘India House’ had become a sore point for the British and there was an increasing clamour from the British press for the Government to stop him from his ‘seditious’ activities. Feeling the heat, finally, Shyamji left England and moved to Paris in early 1907 joining with Madam Cama, S.R. Rana, and Virendranath Chattopadhya who also, for a while, had moved to Paris. From Paris, Madam Cama and Chatto attended the Second International Socialist Conference in Stuttgart, Germany in August 1907 to present the case for the independence of India. There, in a ceremony at the Conference together with the Indian delegation, Madam Cama got the distinction of becoming the first Indian woman to unfurl a proposed Indian flag before an influential international association. Here the Indian delegation met socialist luminaries like Henry Hyndman, Karl Liebknekht, Rosa Luxemburg, and Ramsay McDonald. V.I. Lenin had also attended the conference but indications are that the Indian delegation did not meet him in person.
After Shyamji left London, the leadership of ‘India House’ came into the hands of Vanayak Damodar (V.D.) Savarkar, a law student who had recently arrived in England on a scholarship from Shyamji. Inspired by Mazzini, the Italian liberation philosopher and G.D. Tilak, Savarkar pushed for more radical and violent means of the independence struggle. These preachings resulted in an event that spread sensation in the UK and India. In July 1909, an Indian revolutionary Madanlal Dhingra, having links with Savarkar and the ‘India House’, assassinated William Curzon Wyllie, an ADC to the Secretary of State for India at a public meeting in London. This high profile assassination in London sparked an uproar and the British police came down heavily on the ‘India House’ and its inmates. Savakar was arrested and the ‘India House’ was eventually shut down, and the students living in the hostel were expelled from Britain. Savarkar was deported to India where he was tried and transported to Andaman Islands. Under strong and growing nationalist pressure and demands from the Indian National Congress leaders like Patel, Tilak and Gandhi, Savarkar was eventually released in 1924 after submitting his apology and acceptance of the verdict of his trial, the British law, and his renouncing of violence. Savarkar, later, emerged as the earliest advocate of the extremist Hinduvta ideology and founded the extremist organization Hindu Mahasabha.
Virendranath Chattopadhya was also expelled from the Middle temple. With the liquidation of ‘India House’ in London, most of its leaders, including, Viren, Lala Har Dayal, VVS Ayer, and D.S. Madhurao, managed to reach Paris and joined the Indian Paris Society. The old ‘India House’ group again rejoining in Paris continued their struggle and agitation at different international forums for the independence of India and bringing out revolutionary journals. VVS Ayer went to Pondicherry in India under French rule; Lala Har Dayal went to Algeria and ended up in the USA via Martinique in the Caribbean; Chattopadhya went to Berlin to publish a paper Talwar from there; and MPT Acharya was helping Cama in bringing out Bande Mataram from Paris. Acharya was also sent to Istanbul in 1911 to seek Turkish help. Meanwhile, the world was slowly moving towards the First World War.
With the outbreak of the WW1 in 1914, the world situation changed rapidly. Britain and France joined forces against Germany and allied Central Powers. Now the existence of an anti-British Paris Indian Society was at risk. It was increasingly awkward for the French government to allow the Paris Indian Society openly engage in anti-British activities. In these difficult circumstances, Shyamji Verma moved to Geneva, where his movements were severely restricted by the neutral Swiss government1.
Acting in accordance with the age-old proverb, ‘the enemy of my enemy is my friend’, few other members moved to Berlin in Germany to organize a rebellion against Britain with the help of Germans. Bhikaji Cama and S.R. Rana, however, decided to stay back in Paris, in spite of friendly advice of some French socialists including Jean Longuet (Jean was, incidentally, the grandson of Karl Marx, being the son of his elder daughter, Jenny and Charles Languet, a disciple of Marx in Paris) to proceed to Spain with Acharya. She and Rana were later arrested in Marseilles holding an agitation before the Punjab Regiment troops of the British Indian army arriving from India. Rana’s family was later deported to the Caribbean Island of Martinique, and Madam Cama was interned at Vichy, only to be released in November 1917 in considerably bad health2.
Viren Chattopadhya was among those who shifted to Berlin in April 1914, separating from his English wife who at this time refused to join him moving to Germany for continuing anti-British activities. Arriving in Berlin, Chattopadhya and his comrades met many Indian nationalists in Germany, including Dr. Abhinash Bhattacharya, who was well-known to some influential German leaders close to the German Monarch, Kaiser Wilhelm II. They were able to meet the German Foreign Office representative with the help, and some financial assistance, from an influential German lady, Frau Anna Simon, who was sympathetic to the Indian cause. Arthur Zimmermann, the German Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Max Oppenheim, the Director of German Intelligence Bureau, ensured that all the required logistics and financial support for the Indian plans is provided3.
Thus an anti-British Berlin-Indian Committee was formed in Berlin, Germany, in 1914. It was later renamed as the Indian Independence Committee in 1915, but it remained commonly known as the ‘Berlin Committee’. Prominent among its early members were Virendranath Chatopadhya, Ghulam Anbia Khan Lohani, and MPT Acharya from the ‘London Club’ and Raja Mehendra Partap Singh, M.G. Prabhakar (Cologne), Abdul Wahid, Dr Abdul Hafiz (Leipzig), Padam Nabhan Pillai (Zurich), Dr Dhiren Sarkar, Narain Marathe (Basel), Dr. Janendra Das Gupta (Zurich), Shrish Chandra Sen, Satish Chandra Ray, Mansoor Ahmed, and Sambhashiva Rao. Others joining the committee were Champak Raman Pillai (brother of P.N. Pillai who had joined earlier), and Bhupinder Nath Dutta. Soon, Lala Hardyal who was, in the meantime, arrested in April 1914 in San Francisco for his anti-British activities managed to arrive in Berlin after his release from the US prison.
Raja Mahindra Partap Singh was of a princely family of a small Indian state, Hathras, near Mathura and Agra in UP. Educated at Aligarh College, he was imbued with nationalist ideals and intense desire to see India as a free country and had actively participated in the Swadeshi movement. Leaving India in 1914, Raja Mehandra Partap reached Switzerland from where he got in touch with Virendranath Chattopadhya and became a founding member of the Berlin Committee. Perhaps, because of his princely family background, German Kaiser Willhelm II desired to personally meet the Indian Committee delegation led by Raja Mehendra Partap.4 The German government in its own global strategy was long considering a plan to help organize the Indian nationalist revolutionaries to rise against Britain. After the beginning of WW1, taking advantage of the situation, the German government gave the green light to the plan. Now it actively encouraged the Berlin Committee and promised diplomatic and material support to it in its independence struggle.
Ghulm Anbia Lohani was from a Bengali family living in Behar. His father, Azam Khan was practicing law in Sirajganj. Educated from Aligarh College, Ghulam Anbia participated in nationalist activities. The veteran Bengali communist leader Muzaffar Ahmed says in his reminiscences ‘The Communist Party of India and its Formation Abroad’ that when he was young in High School he first met Ghulam Anbia Lohani during a conference in 1908. Muzaffar Ahmed was inspired by the energetic Ghulam Anbia with fiery public speaking skills and disability in one leg. Expelled from Aligarh College owing to his anti-British activism, he graduated from Allahabad in 1912 and reached London for law degree. Here he joined the socialist club and participated in nationalist activities in line with the Indian Paris Society. After WW1 started, Ghulam Anbia also moved to Berlin following Virendaranath Chattopadhya and his comrades5.
The Berlin Committee entered into a formal agreement with the German government which envisaged German assistance for the Committee’s armed revolutionary struggle for the independence of India and establishing an independent socialist democratic republic in India which would establish diplomatic relations with Germany on equal terms and non-interference in internal matters of respective countries.
Interestingly, this agreement had a stipulation not to support or join any of the former ruling class or Rajas or Nawabs in any of their effort to re-establish their lost kingdoms in any part of India. With the help from German officials, calls were sent to all Indian nationalists and revolutionaries across Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland, and Austria to enlist wider support6.
Meanwhile, the initial adventurous steps taken a bit prematurely by the Ghadar Party in San Francisco to start sending its workers’ contingents by ships sailing to various Indian ports and dispatching two vessels carrying arms shipment from Germany and USA to be secretly unloaded at Bengal coast met with disappointing failures. As discussed in the previous posts, many workers had been arrested and arms carrying vessels were effectively intercepted by the British navy after their arrival in the Bay of Bengal. The Ghadar Party & Berlin Committee leaders, however, did not lose heart and continued in their efforts to carry out their plans.
While Ghadar Party’s initial efforts were being brutally crushed in Punjab starting from the crackdown of 19 February 1915, the Indian elite was overly eager to demonstrate its loyalty to the British rulers. The Governor of Punjab, Michael O’Dwyer was felicitated in Lahore on 6 March 1915 in a grand civic reception that was attended by prominent Indians including Justice Shadi Lal, Rai Bahadur Sarendar Nath, Rai Bahadur Pandit Shiv Narain, Justice Shah Din, Khan Bahadur Mian Mohamad Shafi, and Rai Bahadur Gopal Das Bhindari. Many Rajas and Nawabs of Indian States announced generous contributions in the British War Fund, including Rs.4 million from Nawab of Bhawalpur, Rs.500,000 from Raja of Nabh, Rs.400,000 from Raja of Faridkot, and Rs.250,000 from Raja of Kapurthala. Another civic reception was given on 12 August 1915 at Barkat Mohammaden Hall in Lahore that was presided over by Khan Bahadur Nawab Muhammad Ali Qizilbash. A resolution in support of the British war efforts was enthusiastically supported by Malik Barkat Ali, Editor Observer, Mian Shamsuddin, Hakim Ghulam Nabi, Dr Yaqub Beg, and Dr Mohammad Iqbal who was not yet knighted by the British government7.
The Berlin Committee members made efforts to organise its branches and associates in other cities of Europe, USA, Turkey, the Middle East, and Far East. Its Constantinople (Istanbul) committee became very active after Turkey joined Germany against Great Britain and its allies. Facilitated by the German diplomatic officers, the Berlin Committee sent missions, among others, to Istanbul, Baghdad and Kabul. The Committee, with an objective of raising an Indian liberation army, prepared a plan to recruit trained Indian soldiers from the British army (most of them were from north Punjab and Pukhtuns from NWFP), who were taken as war prisoners at various fronts in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. Years later, during WW2, Subhash Chandar Bose with the help of Japan raised a rebel Indian National Army on similar lines.
To ensure war supplies from Germany and Turkey to reach India via land route, a dependable passage way through Afghanistan was essential. Bipan Das Gupta and M.P.T. Acharya were sent to the Middle East to bring key people on board who could facilitate these diplomatic overtures in the Muslim lands. Messages for assistance were sent to Ghadar Party in San Francisco, and with the help of, and in coordination with, Maulvi Barkatullah, Jabbar Khairi and Sattar Khairi (known as Khairi Brothers) were contacted in Istanbul, and Abdul Rab of Peshawar was approached in Baghdad. Tarak Nath Das, now a PhD scholar at UC Berkeley and an active worker of the Ghadar party also arrived in Berlin in January 1915.
By September 1915, Dr Dhiren Sarkar and N.S. Marathe left for USA to again arrange for new arms purchases and their shipment to India with the help of the German ambassador, Johann von Bernstoff. They were also to coordinate activities with the Ghadar Party in San Francisco.
Finally, in coordination with the Ghadar Party, a delegation organised by the Berlin Committee under the leadership of Raja Mehendar Partap Singh, M.P.T. Acharya, and Maulvi Barkatullah was sent to Istanbul and from there to Kabul in December 1915, which has already been briefly discussed in our previous posts.
Almost simultaneous to these efforts but, apparently, independent of it, another effort to raise an army and a ‘jihad’ to liberate India from the British colonial rule was underway elsewhere.
Following the footsteps of the first ‘Jihad’ war undertaken by Syed Ahmed Barailvi Shaheed in 1830s, some radical elements among his successors in the Darul Uloom at Deoband, near Saharanpur, UP in India were planning to raise a Muslim army with the help of Muslim rulers of Turkey and Afghanistan and carry out a Jihad for both defending the embattled Turkey and liberating India against the British Empire. With the plan having been formulated, Maulana Mehmudul Hasan, the highly respected principal of the religious seminary and a dedicated revolutionary nationalist, together with his disciple and an energetic revolutionary Maulana Obaidullah Sindhi and few of his colleagues proceeded to Hijaz in Arabia that was still a Turkish province. He proceeded in about July 1915 via Kabul and meeting with Afghan leaders and religious Ulema, many of whom were his students in Deoband, Maulana Mehmudul Hasan proceeded to Hijaz for enlisting support of the Turkish government and the Sharif of Mecca while Maulana Obaidullah Sindhi stayed in Kabul to seek support from the Amir Habibullah Khan of Afghanistan and make arrangements for implementing the plan in Kabul. Owing to the preeminent positions enjoyed by these religious leaders across Muslim world, they were given a sympathetic hearing in Kabul. Maulana Obaidullah Sindhi was able to obtain support for his cause among a powerful section of the Afghan ruling class, especially, the Sardar Nasrullah Khan, the Amir’s brother and Prince Inayatullah and Prince Amanullah Khan, the two sons of Amir Habibullah Khan8.
Here at Kabul, with Maulvi Barkatullah playing a key role, the Berlin Committee-Ghadar Party’s joint delegation that had arrived from Istanbul and Berlin met with Maulana Obaidullah Sindhi’s delegation and joined hands in each other’s efforts. Finally, with the support of the Amir of Afghanistan, a ‘Provisional Government of India’ was declared establish in December 1915, in Kabul. Raja Mehendar Partap Singh was nominated as the President with Maulvi Barkatullah as the Prime Minister of the new government. Maulana Obaidullah Sindhi was appointed as the Interior Minister, Champak Raman Pillai as the Foreign Minister, and Maulvi Bashir Ahmed as the War Minister of the Provisional Government of India in exile. Turkish representative Kazim Bey and the German diplomat, Dr Von Hanting and the leader of the Special German Mission in Kabul, Oskar von Niedermayer had also arrived in Kabul as advisors to Berlin Committee delegation and the newly formed ‘Provisional Government of India’9.
Alarmed at these hostile developments in Berlin, Kabul, and Hijaz, the British government was soon able, on the one hand, to lure the Sharif of Mecca and his sons to rise in rebellion against Turkey and snub the Indian Muslim leaders’ delegation under Maulana Mehmudul Hasan, and in fact, having them arrested and handing over to the British police, and, on the other hand, neutralizing and winning over the Afghan government to its side by offering the bait of huge ‘subsidies’ and ‘concessions’. The British government was providing a ‘budget subsidy’ of Rs.1.8 million per annum to the Amir of Afghanistan. With the increasingly changing reports from various war fronts favoring the British and allied forces, over time, the support of the Afghan government to the ‘provisional government’ cooled off till it was completely withdrawn in 1919.
More details of the Jihad efforts, the formation and activities of Provisional Government of India, and the massive Hijrat undertaken as part of a greater ‘Jihad Movement’ will be discussed in the next post.
By 1917, the tide in the WW1 had started clearly turning against Germany and its allies. As a result, no significant diplomatic or material support for the activities of the Berlin Committee from the Germans was forthcoming any longer. In the face of an imminent defeat of the exhausted Germany, the Berlin Committee actively started looking for support towards socialist leaders in some neutral countries of Europe like Switzerland and Sweden. Most of the leaders of the Berlin Committee reached Stockholm, relocating the activities of the Committee for all practical purposes. Chattopadhya, Har Dayal and others also attended the International Socialist Conference held in Stockholm in May 1917, raising the issue of the Indian independence at the conference. Here they met Russian Bolshevik leader Torinvsky.
The Berlin Committee was formally dissolved in November 1918 after the defeat of Germany in the WW1, with all its active members having already moved to Stockholm. After the Berlin Committee’s formal liquidation in 1918, the Berlin Committee members contacted Torinvsky and other Russian revolutionaries they had met at Stockholm looking for support. Eventually, Chattopdhya, together with Agnes Smedley, his American life partner he had met and lived together in Berlin, and Raja Mehendra Partap, Acharya, Bhupendra Nath Dutta, C.R. Pillai, Abdul Rab, Nalini Gupta, Shafiq Ahmed, and Amin Faruqi, reached Petrograd, sometime in December 1918. These Indian revolutionaries initially worked with the Russian Propaganda and Publication Centre in Petrograd. Later, they moved to Tashkent meeting M.N. Roy to work for the Military and Political training school established by the Communist International for the Indian revolutionaries.
Lala Har Dayal stayed back in Sweden for another about 10 years. During these years, the influence of extremist Hindu political philosophy on his ideas was greatly increased. He wrote many extremist articles against Muslims in India, reflecting the aggressive Hinduvta ideology of Savarkar’s Hindu Mahasabha. Har Dayal died in Philadelphia, USA in 1939.
The fusion of three separate streams of the revolutionary anti-imperialist struggles of the ‘Ghadar Party’, the ‘Berlin Committee’, and the ‘Jihad Movement’, originating in different places and meeting together in Kabul at about the beginning of 1916, gave rise to an altogether new dimension of the independence movement of India. How the third stream i.e. the Jihad Movement originated and how these three movements eventually merged together and dissolved themselves into a new form of revolutionary activity will be discussed in the next chapter.
To be continued…
1. Shayamji Verma spent his last days alone in Geneva in poverty as witnessed by Jawahar Lal Nehru in 1927 and has mentioned in his Autobiography. Becoming a recluse and paranoid, he feared every other person as his enemy or British secret service agent. He died in a Geneva hospital in 1930.
2. Madam Cama remained in exile in France until 1935 when gravely ill and paralyzed due to a stroke, she was finally allowed to return India with a family friend, Sir Cowesji Jehangir. Few months later, she died in Bombay in November 1935, bequeathing most of her personal assets to a girl’s orphanage.
3. Dr Abhinash Chandar Bhattacharya, Europe Bapla Barsadhna, (his memoirs in Bengali), quoted from Shaukat Siddiqi, Gumshida Auraq, Riktab Publications, Karachi, 2011
4. Raees Ahmed Jafri Nadvi, Karwan-e-Gum Gashta (The Lost Caravan)
5. Shaukat Siddiqi, Gumshida Auraq (The Lost Pages), Riktab Publications, Karachi, 2011, Pg. 117
6. Dr Abhinash Chandar Bhattacharya, op cited
7. Shaukat Siddiqi, Gumshida Auraq (The Lost Pages), Riktab Publications, Karachi, 2011, Pg.170 & 171
8. Mohammad Anwer Hussain, Ulema’s Freedom Struggle & Concept of Pakistan, Pg. 78
9. Shaukat Siddiqi, Gumshida Auraq (The Lost Pages), Riktab Publications, Karachi, 2011, Pg. 218